Futility

Atkinson S, Bihari D, Smithies M, Daly K, Mason R, McColl I. Identification of futility in intensive care. Lancet 1994; 344:1203-6.

Curtis JR, Park DR, Krone MR, Pearlman RA. Use of the medical futility rationale in do-not-attempt-resuscitation orders. Jama 1995; 273:124-8.

Curtis JR, Patrick DL, Caldwell ES, Collier AC. The attitudes of patients with advanced AIDS toward use of the medical futility rationale in decisions to forego mechanical ventilation. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:1597-601.

Goh AY, Mok Q. Identifying futility in a paediatric critical care setting: a prospective observational study. Arch Dis Child 2001; 84:265-8.

Meadow W, Katznelson J, Rosen T, Lantos J. Putting futility to use in the NICU: ethical implications of non- survival after CPR in very low-birth-weight infants. Acta Paediatr 1995; 84:589-92.

Sachdeva RC, Jefferson LS, Coss-Bu J, Brody BA. Resource consumption and the extent of futile care among patients in a pediatric intensive care unit setting. J Pediatr 1996; 128:742-7.

Singer PA, Barker G, Bowman KW, et al. Hospital policy on appropriate use of life-sustaining treatment. University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics/Critical Care Medicine Program Task Force. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:187-91.

Solomon MZ. How physicians talk about futility: making words mean too many things. J Law Med Ethics 1993; 21:231-7.

Teno JM, Murphy D, Lynn J, et al. Prognosis-based futility guidelines: does anyone win? SUPPORT Investigators. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatment. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994; 42:1202-7.

Promoting Excellence in End-of-Life Care was a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation dedicated to long-term changes in health care institutions to substantially improve care for dying people and their families.

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