Medline listed journal articles
Consensus report on the ethics of foregoing life-sustaining treatments in the critically
ill. Task Force on Ethics of the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med
Consensus statement of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Ethics Committee
regarding futile and other possibly inadvisable treatments. Crit Care Med 1997;
Ethical and moral guidelines for the initiation, continuation, and withdrawal of
intensive care. American College of Chest Physicians/ Society of Critical Care Medicine
Consensus Panel. Chest 1990; 97:949-58.
Medical futility in end-of-life care: report of the Council on Ethical and Judicial
Affairs. Jama 1999; 281:937-41.
Understanding Costs and Cost-Effectiveness in Critical Care. Report from the second
american thoracic society workshop on outcomes research. Am J Respir Crit Care Med
Withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining therapy. This Official Statement of
the American Thoracic Society was adopted by the ATS Board of Directors, March 1991.
Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 144:726-31.
Avery GB. Futility considerations in the neonatal intensive care unit. Semin Perinatol
Baggs JG, Schmitt MH. End-of-life decisions in adult intensive care: current research
base and directions for the future. Nurs Outlook 2000; 48:158-64.
Benditt JO. Noninvasive ventilation at the end of life. Respir Care 2000; 45:1376-81;
Bock KR, Teres D, Rapoport J. Economic implications of the timing of do-not-resuscitate
orders for ICU patients. New Horiz 1997; 5:51-5.
Borasio GD, Gelinas DF, Yanagisawa N. Mechanical ventilation in amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis: a cross- cultural perspective. J Neurol 1998; 245 Suppl 2:S7-12; discussion
Borasio GD, Voltz R. Discontinuation of mechanical ventilation in patients with
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol 1998; 245:717-22.
Brody H, Campbell ML, Faber-Langendoen K, Ogle KS. Withdrawing intensive life-sustaining
treatment -- recommendations for compassionate clinical management. N Engl J Med
Campbell ML. End of life care in the ICU: current practice and future hopes. Crit
Care Nurs Clin N Am 2002; 14:197-200.
Civetta JM. Futile care or caregiver frustration? A practical approach. Crit Care
Med 1996; 24:346-51.
Civetta JM. Critical palliative care: intensive care redefined. Surg Oncol Clin
N Am 2001; 10:137-59.
Cook D. Patient autonomy versus parentalism. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N24-5.
Cook DJ. Health professional decision-making in the ICU: a review of the evidence.
New Horiz 1997; 5:15-9.
Daly BJ. Organizational change and delivery of multidisciplinary palliative care.
Respir Care 2000; 45:1501-10; discussion 1510-2.
Danis M. Improving end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: what's to be learned
from outcomes research? New Horiz 1998; 6:110-8.
Faber-Langendoen K, Lanken PN. Dying patients in the intensive care unit: forgoing
treatment, maintaining care. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133:886-93.
Fins JJ, Solomon MZ. Communication in intensive care settings: the challenge of
futility disputes. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N10-5.
Helft PR, Siegler M, Lantos J. The rise and fall of the futility movement. N Engl
J Med 2000; 343:293-6.
Henig NR, Faul JL, Raffin TA. Biomedical ethics and the withdrawal of advanced life
support. Annu Rev Med 2001; 52:79-92.
Kapp MB. Futile medical treatment: a review of the ethical arguments and legal holdings.
J Gen Intern Med 1994; 9:170-7.
Kirchhoff KT. Promoting a peaceful death in the ICU. Crit Care Nurs Clin N Am 2002;
Levetown M. Palliative care in the intensive care unit. New Horiz 1998; 6:383-97.
Levy MM. End-of-life care in the intensive care unit: can we do better? Crit Care
Med 2001; 29:N56-61.
Lo B, Ruston D, Kates LW, et al. Discussing religious and spiritual issues at the
end of life: a practical guide for physicians. Jama 2002; 287:749-54.
Luce JM. Physicians do not have a responsibility to provide futile or unreasonable
care if a patient or family insists. Crit Care Med 1995; 23:760-6.
Luce JM. Making decisions about the forgoing of life-sustaining therapy. Am J Respir
Crit Care Med 1997; 156:1715-8.
Luce JM, Alpers A. End-of-life care: what do the American courts say? Crit Care
Med 2001; 29:N40-5.
Luce JM, Alpers A. Legal aspects of withholding and withdrawing life support from
critically ill patients in the United States and providing palliative care to them.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 162:2029-32.
Masri C, Farrell CA, Lacroix J, Rocker G, Shemie SD. Decision making and end-of-life
care in critically ill children. J Palliat Care 2000; 16 Suppl:S45-52.
Mosenthal AC, Lee KF, Huffman J. Palliative care in the surgical intensive care
unit. J Am Coll Surg 2002; 194:75-83; discussion 83-5.
Nakata Y, Goto T, Morita S. Serving the emperor without asking: critical care ethics
in Japan. J Med Philos 1998; 23:601-15.
Nelson JE, Danis M. End-of-life care in the intensive care unit: where are we now?
Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N2-9.
Nelson JE, Meier DE. Palliative care in the intensive care unit, Part I. J Intensive
Care Med 1999; 14:130-139.
Nelson JE, Meier DE. Palliative care in the intensive care unit, Part II. Intensive
Care Med 1999; 14:189-99.
Nyman DJ, Sprung CL. End-of-life decision making in the intensive care unit. Intensive
Care Med 2000; 26:1414-20.
Oppenheimer EA. Decision-making in the respiratory care of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis:
should home mechanical ventilation be used? Palliat Med 1993; 7:49-64.
Osborne M, Patterson J. Ethical allocation of ICU resources: a view from the USA.
Intensive Care Med 1996; 22:1010-4.
Prendergast TJ. Advance care planning: pitfalls, progress, promise. Crit Care Med
Prendergast TJ. Resolving conflicts surrounding end-of-life care. New Horiz 1997;
Pronovost P, Angus DC. Economics of end-of-life care in the intensive care unit.
Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N46-51.
Quill TE, Brody H. Physician recommendations and patient autonomy: finding a balance
between physician power and patient choice. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125:763-9.
Rubenfeld GD, Curtis JR. End-of-life care in the intensive care unit: a research
agenda. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:2001-6.
Schneiderman LJ, Jecker NS, Jonsen AR. Medical futility: its meaning and ethical
implications. Ann Intern Med 1990; 112:949-54.
Silverman HJ, Vinicky JK, Gasner MR. Advance directives: implications for critical
care. Crit Care Med 1992; 20:1027-31.
Snyder JW, Swartz MS. Deciding to terminate treatment: a practical guide for physicians.
J Crit Care 1993; 8:177-85.
Stein-Parbury J, McKinley S. Patients' experiences of being in an intensive care
unit: a select literature review. Am J Crit Care 2000; 9:20-7.
Sullivan DJ, Hansen-Flaschen J. Termination of life support after major trauma.
Surg Clin North Am 2000; 80:1055-66.
Teres D. Trends from the United States with end of life decisions in the intensive
care unit. Intensive Care Med 1993; 19:316-22.
Truog RD, Burns JP, Mitchell C, Johnson J, Robinson W. Pharmacologic paralysis and
withdrawal of mechanical ventilation at the end of life. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:508-11.
Truog RD, Cist AF, Brackett SE, et al. Recommendations for end-of-life care in the
intensive care unit: The Ethics Committee of the Society of Critical Care Medicine.
Crit Care Med 2001; 29:2332-48.
Vincent JL. Cultural differences in end-of-life care. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N52-5.
Waisel DB, Truog RD. The cardiopulmonary resuscitation-not-indicated order: futility
revisited. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122:304-8.
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Promoting Excellence in End-of-Life Care was a national program of the Robert
Wood Johnson Foundation dedicated to long-term changes in health care institutions
to substantially improve care for dying people and their families.