Medline listed journal articles

Consensus report on the ethics of foregoing life-sustaining treatments in the critically ill. Task Force on Ethics of the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 1990; 18:1435-9.

Consensus statement of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Ethics Committee regarding futile and other possibly inadvisable treatments. Crit Care Med 1997; 25:887-91.

Ethical and moral guidelines for the initiation, continuation, and withdrawal of intensive care. American College of Chest Physicians/ Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Panel. Chest 1990; 97:949-58.

Medical futility in end-of-life care: report of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Jama 1999; 281:937-41.

Understanding Costs and Cost-Effectiveness in Critical Care. Report from the second american thoracic society workshop on outcomes research. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 165:540-550.

Withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining therapy. This Official Statement of the American Thoracic Society was adopted by the ATS Board of Directors, March 1991. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 144:726-31.

Avery GB. Futility considerations in the neonatal intensive care unit. Semin Perinatol 1998; 22:216-22.

Baggs JG, Schmitt MH. End-of-life decisions in adult intensive care: current research base and directions for the future. Nurs Outlook 2000; 48:158-64.

Benditt JO. Noninvasive ventilation at the end of life. Respir Care 2000; 45:1376-81; discussion 1381-4.

Bock KR, Teres D, Rapoport J. Economic implications of the timing of do-not-resuscitate orders for ICU patients. New Horiz 1997; 5:51-5.

Borasio GD, Gelinas DF, Yanagisawa N. Mechanical ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a cross- cultural perspective. J Neurol 1998; 245 Suppl 2:S7-12; discussion S29.

Borasio GD, Voltz R. Discontinuation of mechanical ventilation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol 1998; 245:717-22.

Brody H, Campbell ML, Faber-Langendoen K, Ogle KS. Withdrawing intensive life-sustaining treatment -- recommendations for compassionate clinical management. N Engl J Med 1997; 336:652-7.

Campbell ML. End of life care in the ICU: current practice and future hopes. Crit Care Nurs Clin N Am 2002; 14:197-200.

Civetta JM. Futile care or caregiver frustration? A practical approach. Crit Care Med 1996; 24:346-51.

Civetta JM. Critical palliative care: intensive care redefined. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2001; 10:137-59.

Cook D. Patient autonomy versus parentalism. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N24-5.

Cook DJ. Health professional decision-making in the ICU: a review of the evidence. New Horiz 1997; 5:15-9.

Daly BJ. Organizational change and delivery of multidisciplinary palliative care. Respir Care 2000; 45:1501-10; discussion 1510-2.

Danis M. Improving end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: what's to be learned from outcomes research? New Horiz 1998; 6:110-8.

Faber-Langendoen K, Lanken PN. Dying patients in the intensive care unit: forgoing treatment, maintaining care. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133:886-93.

Fins JJ, Solomon MZ. Communication in intensive care settings: the challenge of futility disputes. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N10-5.

Helft PR, Siegler M, Lantos J. The rise and fall of the futility movement. N Engl J Med 2000; 343:293-6.

Henig NR, Faul JL, Raffin TA. Biomedical ethics and the withdrawal of advanced life support. Annu Rev Med 2001; 52:79-92.

Kapp MB. Futile medical treatment: a review of the ethical arguments and legal holdings. J Gen Intern Med 1994; 9:170-7.

Kirchhoff KT. Promoting a peaceful death in the ICU. Crit Care Nurs Clin N Am 2002; 14:201-206.

Levetown M. Palliative care in the intensive care unit. New Horiz 1998; 6:383-97.

Levy MM. End-of-life care in the intensive care unit: can we do better? Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N56-61.

Lo B, Ruston D, Kates LW, et al. Discussing religious and spiritual issues at the end of life: a practical guide for physicians. Jama 2002; 287:749-54.

Luce JM. Physicians do not have a responsibility to provide futile or unreasonable care if a patient or family insists. Crit Care Med 1995; 23:760-6.

Luce JM. Making decisions about the forgoing of life-sustaining therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997; 156:1715-8.

Luce JM, Alpers A. End-of-life care: what do the American courts say? Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N40-5.

Luce JM, Alpers A. Legal aspects of withholding and withdrawing life support from critically ill patients in the United States and providing palliative care to them. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 162:2029-32.

Masri C, Farrell CA, Lacroix J, Rocker G, Shemie SD. Decision making and end-of-life care in critically ill children. J Palliat Care 2000; 16 Suppl:S45-52.

Mosenthal AC, Lee KF, Huffman J. Palliative care in the surgical intensive care unit. J Am Coll Surg 2002; 194:75-83; discussion 83-5.

Nakata Y, Goto T, Morita S. Serving the emperor without asking: critical care ethics in Japan. J Med Philos 1998; 23:601-15.

Nelson JE, Danis M. End-of-life care in the intensive care unit: where are we now? Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N2-9.

Nelson JE, Meier DE. Palliative care in the intensive care unit, Part I. J Intensive Care Med 1999; 14:130-139.

Nelson JE, Meier DE. Palliative care in the intensive care unit, Part II. Intensive Care Med 1999; 14:189-99.

Nyman DJ, Sprung CL. End-of-life decision making in the intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med 2000; 26:1414-20.

Oppenheimer EA. Decision-making in the respiratory care of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: should home mechanical ventilation be used? Palliat Med 1993; 7:49-64.

Osborne M, Patterson J. Ethical allocation of ICU resources: a view from the USA. Intensive Care Med 1996; 22:1010-4.

Prendergast TJ. Advance care planning: pitfalls, progress, promise. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N34-9.

Prendergast TJ. Resolving conflicts surrounding end-of-life care. New Horiz 1997; 5:62-71.

Pronovost P, Angus DC. Economics of end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N46-51.

Quill TE, Brody H. Physician recommendations and patient autonomy: finding a balance between physician power and patient choice. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125:763-9.

Rubenfeld GD, Curtis JR. End-of-life care in the intensive care unit: a research agenda. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:2001-6.

Schneiderman LJ, Jecker NS, Jonsen AR. Medical futility: its meaning and ethical implications. Ann Intern Med 1990; 112:949-54.

Silverman HJ, Vinicky JK, Gasner MR. Advance directives: implications for critical care. Crit Care Med 1992; 20:1027-31.

Snyder JW, Swartz MS. Deciding to terminate treatment: a practical guide for physicians. J Crit Care 1993; 8:177-85.

Stein-Parbury J, McKinley S. Patients' experiences of being in an intensive care unit: a select literature review. Am J Crit Care 2000; 9:20-7.

Sullivan DJ, Hansen-Flaschen J. Termination of life support after major trauma. Surg Clin North Am 2000; 80:1055-66.

Teres D. Trends from the United States with end of life decisions in the intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med 1993; 19:316-22.

Truog RD, Burns JP, Mitchell C, Johnson J, Robinson W. Pharmacologic paralysis and withdrawal of mechanical ventilation at the end of life. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:508-11.

Truog RD, Cist AF, Brackett SE, et al. Recommendations for end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: The Ethics Committee of the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:2332-48.

Vincent JL. Cultural differences in end-of-life care. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:N52-5.
Waisel DB, Truog RD. The cardiopulmonary resuscitation-not-indicated order: futility revisited. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122:304-8.

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Promoting Excellence in End-of-Life Care was a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation dedicated to long-term changes in health care institutions to substantially improve care for dying people and their families.

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