Pediatric

Abe N, Catlin A, Mihara D. End of life in the NICU. A study of ventilator withdrawal. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2001; 26:141-6.

Balfour-Lynn IM, Tasker RC. At the coalface--medical ethics in practice. Futility and death in paediatric medical intensive care. J Med Ethics 1996; 22:279-81.

Burns JP, Mitchell C, Outwater KM, et al. End-of-life care in the pediatric intensive care unit after the forgoing of life-sustaining treatment. Crit Care Med 2000; 28:3060-6.

Burns JP, Mitchell C, Griffith JL, Truog RD. End-of-life care in the pediatric intensive care unit: attitudes and practices of pediatric critical care physicians and nurses. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:658-64.

Caniano DA, Hazebroek FW, DenBesten KE, Tibboel D. End-of-life decisions for surgical neonates: experience in The Netherlands and United States. J Pediatr Surg 1995; 30:1420-4.

Cuttini M, Kaminski M, Saracci R, de Vonderweid U. The EURONIC Project: a European concerted action on information to parents and ethical decision-making in neonatal intensive care. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1997; 11:461-74.

Cuttini M, Nadai M, Kaminski M, et al. End-of-life decisions in neonatal intensive care: physicians' self- reported practices in seven European countries. EURONIC Study Group.Lancet 2000; 355:2112-8.

de Leeuw R, de Beaufort AJ, de Kleine MJ, van Harrewijn K, Kollee LA. Foregoing intensive care treatment in newborn infants with extremely poor prognoses. A study in four neonatal intensive care units in The Netherlands. J Pediatr 1996; 129:661-6.

Goh AY, Mok Q. Identifying futility in a paediatric critical care setting: a prospective observational study. Arch Dis Child 2001; 84:265-8.

Koh TH, Jarvis C. Promoting effective communication in neonatal intensive care units by audiotaping doctor-parent conversations. Int J Clin Pract 1998; 52:27-9.

Martinot A, Grandbastien B, Leteurtre S, Duhamel A, Leclerc F. No resuscitation orders and withdrawal of therapy in French paediatric intensive care units. Groupe Francophone de Reanimation et d'Urgences Pediatriques. Acta Paediatr 1998; 87:769-73.

Meadow W, Katznelson J, Rosen T, Lantos J. Putting futility to use in the NICU: ethical implications of non- survival after CPR in very low-birth-weight infants. Acta Paediatr 1995; 84:589-92.

Meyer EC, Burns JP, Griffith JL, Truog RD. Parental perspectives on end-of-life care in the pediatric intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2002; 30:226-31.

Partridge JC, Wall SN. Analgesia for dying infants whose life support is withdrawn or withheld. Pediatrics 1997; 99:76-9

Sachdeva RC, Jefferson LS, Coss-Bu J, Brody BA. Resource consumption and the extent of futile care among patients in a pediatric intensive care unit setting. J Pediatr 1996; 128:742-7.

van der Heide A, van der Maas PJ, van der Wal G, et al. Medical end-of-life decisions made for neonates and infants in the Netherlands. Lancet 1997; 350:251-5.

van der Heide A, van der Maas PJ, van der Wal G, Kollee LA, de Leeuw R. Using potentially life-shortening drugs in neonates and infants. Crit Care Med 2000; 28:2595-9.

van der Wal ME, Renfurm LN, van Vught AJ, Gemke RJ. Circumstances of dying in hospitalized children. Eur J Pediatr 1999; 158:560-5.

Promoting Excellence in End-of-Life Care was a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation dedicated to long-term changes in health care institutions to substantially improve care for dying people and their families.