Structural Validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depress ion Scale Among Family Members of Critically Ill Patients

Author(s): Grant A. Pignatiello, PhD, RN, Aloen L. Townsend, PhD, and Ronald L. Hickman Jr, PhD, RN, ACNP-BC

Contact Hours 1.00

CERP A 1.00

Expires May 01, 2023

Topics: Behavioral/Psychosocial, COVID-19, Family-Centered Care

Population: Adult

Role: Researcher

Added to Collection

Activity Summary

Required reading for all learners: Implicit Bias impacts patient outcomes

The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is commonly used clinically and scientifically among surrogate decision makers for critically ill patients. The validity of the HADS has been scrutinized, but its use among surrogate decision makers has not been examined.


  • Describe issues related to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale's validity.
  • Discuss the implications of the authors' findings for future clinical research in this and other caregiving populations.
  • Identify limitations of this work that may propel additional research.

Continuing Education Disclosure Statement

Successful Completion

Learners must attend/view/read the entire activity and complete the associated evaluation to be awarded the contact hours or CERP. No partial credit will be awarded.


This activity has been reviewed by the Nurse Planner. It has been determined that the material presented here shows no bias. No conflicts of interest have been identified for any individual with the ability to influence the content of this activity. Accreditation refers to recognition of continuing education only and does not imply AACN or ANCC approval or endorsement of any commercial products discussed or displayed in conjunction with this educational activity.


The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) is accredited as a provider of nursing continuing professional development by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's (ANCC's) Commission on Accreditation, ANCC Provider Number 0012. AACN has been approved as a provider of continuing education in nursing by the California State Board of Nursing (CBRN), California Provider number CEP 1036. This activity is approved for 1.00 contact hours.

AACN programming meets the standards for most states that require mandatory continuing education contact hours for license and/or certification renewal. AACN recommends consulting with your state board of nursing or credentialing organization before submitting CE to fulfill continuing education requirements.

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